Tag: pos-tagger

Full, machine-annotated New Testament Corpus updated

We’ve updated and re-released our fully machine-annotated New Testament corpus.  sahidica.nt V2.1.0 contains the Sahidica NT text from Warren Wells Sahidica online NT, with the following features:

  • Annotated with our latest NLP tools (part of speech tagger 1.9, tokenizer 4.1.0, language tagger and lemmatizer include lexical entries from the Database and Dictionary of Greek Loanwords in Coptic (DDGLC))
  • Now contains the morph layer (annotating compound words and Coptic morphs such ⲣⲉϥ- ⲙⲛⲧ- ⲁⲧ-)
  • Visualizations for linguistic analysis

Please keep in mind that this fully machine-annotated corpus is more accurate than previous versions but will nonetheless contain more errors than a corpus manually corrected by a human.

Search and queries

For searches and queries using our ANNIS database to find specific terms, for this corpus we recommend searching the normalized words using regular expressions (to capture instances of the desired word that may still be embedded in a Coptic bound group, instances that our tokenizer may have missed):

Lemma searches are now also possible.  You may wish to search for the lemma using regular expressions, as well, in order to find lemmas of some compound words.  For example, the following search will find entries containing ⲥⲱⲧⲙ in the lemma:

The results include various forms of ⲥⲱⲧⲙ (including ⲥⲟⲧⲙ) lemmatized the lexical entry “ⲥⲱⲧⲙ“, compound words lemmatized to ⲥⲱⲧⲙ or to a lexical entry containing ⲥⲱⲧⲙ, and some bound groups containing the word form ⲥⲱⲧⲙ, which our tokenizer did not catch:

Frequency table of normalized words lemmatized to swtm or a lemma form containing swtm (May 2016 Sahidica corpus)

Frequency table of normalized words lemmatized to ⲥⲱⲧⲙ or a lemma form containing ⲥⲱⲧⲙ (May 2016 Sahidica corpus)

As you can see, most of the hits are accurate (e.g., ⲥⲟⲧⲙ, ⲁⲧⲥⲱⲧⲙ, ⲣⲁⲧⲥⲱⲧⲙ, ⲣⲉϥⲥⲱⲧⲙ); some of the Coptic bound groups did not tokenize properly (e.g., ⲉⲡⲥⲱⲧⲙ, ⲙⲁⲣⲟⲩⲥⲱⲧⲙ).  We expect accuracy to increase as we incorporate more texts into our corpora that have been machine annotated and then manually edited.

Reading by individual chapter

You can also read these documents and see the linguistic analysis visualizations at data.copticscriptorium.org/urn:cts:copticLit:nt.  The first documents you will see (Gospel of Mark, 1 Corinthians) are manually annotated.  Scroll down for “New Testament,” which is the full, machine-annotated Sahidica New Testament.  Click on “Chapter” to read each chapter as normalized Coptic (with English translation as a pop-up when you hover your cursor).  Click on “Analytic” for the normalized Coptic, part of speech analysis, and English translation for each chapter.  Please keep in mind the English translation provided is a free, open-access New Testament translation from the World English Bible; it is not a direct translation from the Coptic.

Note:  we know that our server is slow generating the documents for this corpus.  It may take several minutes to load; please be patient.  For faster access, use ANNIS.  Visualizations to read the chapters are available by clicking on the corpus and the icon for visualizations.

Accessing document visualizations of the Sahidica corpus via ANNIS

Accessing document visualizations of the Sahidica corpus via ANNIS

We hope this corpus is useful to researchers.

Coptic NLP pipeline Part 2

With the creation of the Coptic NLP (Natural Language Processor) pipeline by Amir Zeldes, it is now possible to run all our NLP tools simultaneously without the need to individually download and run them. The web application will tokenize bound groups into words, and will normalize the spelling of words and diacritics. It will also tag for part-of-speech, lemmatize, and tag for language of origin for borrowed (foreign) words. The interface is XML tolerant (preserves tags in the input) and the output is tagged in SGML. One of the options is to encode the lines breaks in a word or sentence which is useful for encoding manuscripts. However, keep in mind to double check results because the interface is still in the beta stage.

As an example, the screenshot below is a snippet from I See Your Eagerness from manuscript MONB.GL29.



Notice it contains an XML tag to encode a letter as “large ekthetic”. “Large ekthetic” corresponds to the alpha letter to designate it as a large character in the left margin of the manuscript’s column of text.  This tag will be preserved in the output.


The results are shown above. Bounds group are shown and along with the part of speech tag abbreviated as “pos”. The snippet from I See Your Eagerness has also been lemmatized, shown as “lemma”. Also, near the bottom of the screenshot, the language of origin of borrowed (foreign) words in the snippet has been identified as “Greek”.  These tags also correspond to the annotation layers you see in our multi-layer search and visualization tool ANNIS.

We hope the NLP service serves you well.


New Coptic NLP pipeline

The entire tool chain of Coptic Natural Language Processing has been difficult to get running for some: it involves a bunch of command line tools, and special attention needed to be paid to coordinating word division expectations between the tools (normalization, tagging, language of origin detection). In order to make this process simpler, we now offer a Web interface that let’s you paste in Coptic text and run all tools on the input automatically, without installing anything. You can find the interface here:


The pipeline is XML tolerant (preserves tags in the input) and there’s also a machine actionable API version for external software to use these resources. Please let the Scriptorium team know if you’re using the pipeline and/or run into any problems.


Happy processing!

Entire Sahidica New Testament now available

The entire Sahidica New Testament (machine-annotated) is now available. It has been tokenized and tagged for part of speech entirely automatically, using our tools. There has been no manual editing or correction. Visit our corpora for more information, or just jump in and search it in ANNIS.


(Originally posted in March 2015 at http://copticscriptorium.org/)

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